2/ A Lexicon to better understanding Cultural Heritage
"The first assignment for every single student is to select ONE term of your own choice, relevant for your thinking about cultural heritage, and write your own definition of it in about 100-150 words. It is a good idea to select a term that you have been working with in your previous assignments at university. No bibliography is required. You may write in your own language, if you wish, but please also provide a text in English.
Please send your definition before you depart for Spain. Please don't forget to sign you text with your name and university.
Below you will find samples of the definitions that have been supplied so far. Please feel free to redefine some term, if you are not happy with the way it is defined below. You may also elaborate on some of the shorter definitions and make them more complete.
In Santiago (March 2019) you will get a chance to discuss your definitions with your fellow students and hand in a refined version."
The idea behind the work on the lexicon is to discuss and define terms that were thought to be of relevance for our ProPeace project. The students are asked to come up with ideas for terms that they feel to be of interest and importance for their respective studies on cultural heritage. Everyone is free to take their discussion and thinking in different directions as long as they are shown to be relevant for our central theme about cultural heritage in the context of Europe. The following points and problems/questions are presented as central for the process:
- Cultural heritage should be seen in a multicultural setting
- Culture is always multifaceted
- Ideas about culture(s) are a different matter
- "History" is not only the political history of male rulers
- How can "we" talk about "us" without old nation-, religion-, race- and gender barriers?
The discussion and work on the definitions of terms related to cultural heritage can be quite illuminating, wideranging and helpful for all participants in order for them to fathom and start thinking in a systematic fashion about problems related to this term, how it has been applied and used and how it has affected our notions about what is traditional in our everyday culture and identity in the times of change that we now experience especially when it comes to identity based on shared culture with roots in the past.
The term cultural heritage has been used since 1970 and became quite common after 1980 in relation to Unesco's World heritage sites. It is associated with preservation but at the same time the term as such affects and changes everything which it is applied to and thus deserves to be protected as a relic of the past. The term changes the way we think about our customs, behaviour, material culture and traditions. It calls for action, not on the national level but locally and within groups not previously defined as being on a par with the nation. It illuminates the creative power of daily life across national boundaries, use of language, food, clothes, home; in short it gives meaning to the prose of the world, both the intangible and tangible heritage.
What happens also is that the inheritors are distanced or removed as modern and they can not be a part of their own heritage. Rather they are owners of a heritage, and define themselves as rightful heirs of a culture in a population group where not everyone belongs to the inheritors as everyone is believed to have done in the idealised or Edenic past. It is therefore of the utmost importance for us to think critically about notions surrounding cultural heritage, and ask ourselves if we in the present can unite around a heritage from a past that was so different from the world we now live in. Some of the questions we find worth discussing are:
A. Does cultural heritage exist without an ideology about it?
B. Does emphasis on cultural heritage perhaps split us and others?
C. Can emphasis on cultural heritage be discriminating?
D. What kind of groups unite around cultural heritage?
The Student group in Edinburgh 2017 consisting of Rodrigo, Dagrún, Carlos, Despoina and Ian thought about memory as the connection of particular historical occurrences that illustrate the past of a region, individual and collective memorable occurrences, also emphasising it as:
A. The act of recounting or remembering experienced events.
B. An aspect of social destructions.
C. Contribution to the process of socialization and the formation of identities and ideologies.
The part of memory related to the definition of identity was seen as putting us in touch with our roots in order to make efficient decisions and help us to avoid repeating past mistakes, like war, genocides and so on.
The group also dealt with oral tradition and folklore. Oral tradition was seen as referring to everything that is transmitted orally from generation to generation in order to communicate experiences, stories and knowledge to the next generation. Oral traditions were seen as helping societies or communities that don't have a writing tradition to transmit their knowledge and memories down to the next generations. The folklore was defined as all the cultural practices (beliefs, rituals, stories, legends, jokes, cults, traditions etc.) of the traditional societies or groups.
Similarly, literature was described as a collection of experience in written texts, be it history, experience, memories, traditions, stories in all kinds of art, documents, books, texts, papers...
Another method was used to describe central terms like war, by lining up a series of words/terms that were associated with it: Guns. Bombs. Destruction. Enemies. Death. Conflict. Migration. Refugees. Hunger. Politics. Poverty. History. Insecurity. Power. Greed. Invasions. Technology progress. Resistance. Mobilization.
Similarly, climate change was defined through these words: Extreme weather conditions. Destruction of poles, animals, species. Refugees. Migration. Insecurity. Danger to heritage, old buildings. Threat. Resilience. Provoked also by big companies.
Other important topics related to heritage were also mentioned, such as:
Potentially considered as Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH)
Difference from other non-European, indigenous lines of horsemanship
Discussion about nominations of France and Austria to inscribe their respective heritage elements of classical horsemanship
Affect by Dagný Davíðsdóttir
Affect is two sided, it consists of bodily capacities to affect and to be affected that emerge and develop in concert (Ben Anderson). It doesn't need to be a body though, it can be anything. Affects are everywhere and they are connected to everything, for example material things, people, ideas and other affects. They can be connected to something popular, which leads to many people feeling the same affect from it. But what is it? Affect is a curious concept. A big group of people can be affected in the same way while listening to a opera singer, when the hair on their arm rises at the same time. But even though they're all feeling it, it's a really personal moment too. Many different memories, connections with other people and material things makes the people be affected.
Affects are positive and negative. You don't want to have a pillow on your couch from your enemy, the affect the pillow gives you emotions that are meant for the enemy. It's a "happening" between you and your pillow. Affects help people choose material things, friends, lovers and so on. It can boost your identity too, for example when you moved to another country but you pick furniture and decorations in your home remind you of your old country.
Affect Affect is a ethnologic/anthropologic term which refers to the bodily capacities to affect and be affected by something or someone. While it is a very personal experience it may connected to something very popular, such as a pop song that may be talking about heartbreaks which is intended at a diverse public, but each individual lives it personally. Affect is therefore easy to integrate in everything.
Architecture by Bouchet Ludivine
Sur le dictionnaire Larousse, l'Architecture possède plusieurs définitions :
Art de construire les bâtiments. // Caractère, ordonnance, style d'une construction : Monument d'une belle architecture. // Ce qui constitue l'ossature, les éléments essentiels d'une uvre ; structure : L'architecture d'un roman.
Ces définitions reprennent les différents éléments constituant l'architecture : art de construire, style/art, aspects techniques. Si l'on reprend l'étymologie du terme « architecture », cette discipline consistait à couvrir et clore les lieux. L'architecte était celui qui dirigeait ces opérations. Selon moi, ces définitions ne conviennent pas à notre cadre. En effet, l'architecture possède une dimension européenne assez forte dans la mesure où les styles architecturaux et les bâtiments emblématiques ont su traverser les frontières quel que soit les époques. Déjà, dans l'Antiquité, les constructions romaines essaimèrent dans la totalité de l'Empire. Dans l'Antiquité Au Moyen Âge, l'architecture n'est pas associée à l'art. l'architecte est un ingénieur qui conduit les travaux. Pour construit un nouveau bâtiment, il doit simplement faire un schéma, un plan en coup sans mesure, puis avec des calculs simples et à l'aide de proportion, il construit le bâtiment en question. En revanche, l'architecture est plus travaillée quand il s'agit d'exalter la puissance de Dieu. C'est à la Renaissance que l'architecture va s'ériger comme art. l'architecte acquière une place bien plus enviable au sein de la société. Son travail s'enrichit d'outils tels que le compas, l'équerre ou la règle. Il construit des plans précis ainsi que des maquettes. L'architecture devient un art à part entière véhiculant la pensée de l'architecte ou du commanditaire. C'est un moyen de transmettre des messages, de marquer son appartenance à un groupe. Nous pouvons considérer que l'architecture relève d'une certaine « ritualisation ».
Par ailleurs, au-delà des aspects esthétiques, l'architecture nous permet d'apercevoir les outils, les méthodes et les techniques utilisés à l'époque de construction d'un édifice.
L'architecture constitue aujourd'hui un patrimoine important car elle constitue une fenêtre vers le passé : nos techniques, nos époques, nos critères esthétiques, nos manières de concevoir le beau, nos manières de pensées, nos références C'est d'ailleurs sur l'architecture que la notion de patrimoine s'est porté en tout premier.
According to Larousse website, architecture is: The art of building // Style, characteristic/particularities and structure of a building. // Art of marking a piece of art.
In those definitions, we can find all the elements concerning architecture: art, style, technical aspect and way of building. Let's see the etymology of the word architecture. At the beginning, this field was about closing and covering spaces. The architect was the man who lead the workers. However, the historical aspect is missing. Architecture has a European aspect quite important because architectural styles and symbolic monuments crossed borders through the years. During Antiquity, roman constructions spread through Europe. Today, they are an important cultural heritage. During Middle Ages, architecture had nothing to do with art. Architect only lead the workers and had a really bad reputation. People only took attention to religious buildings. During Renaissance, Architecture became an art. Architect became artists. They worked with tools and made real plans. Architecture is used to send a message, to show they belong to a group. Architecture becomes a ritual.
In the first article of the architecture law of 1977: "Architecture is an expression of culture. The architectural creation, the quality of constructions, the harmonious insertion in their environment, the respect of natural or urban landscapes and heritage are of public interest".
Architecture Architecture represents a metamorphosis from utility to a statement of culture, from religion to a statement of power and wealth. While it may unite (e.g. Islamic motifs in Art Nouveau, which is a European architectural style), it may also divide as it is a statement of power against the other. For example, Paris uses/used its 18th century architecture as a declaration of wealth.
Authenticity by Lauren Rae Joenoes
Authentic refers to something that is original. It represents the true nature or the true beliefs. True to itself, not copied or falsified.
Authenticity is often seen as being about reliability, first-handedness, genuineness, and originality (Pine & Gilmore, 2008; Kolar & Zabkar, 2010; Molleda, 2010). Authenticity is always about a person's perception of something being either authentic or inauthentic, which is shaped by someone's background and within a certain context. There is a relation between someone's centre' of their own culture and society and how this person sees other cultures and societies and gives meaning related to authenticity (Cohen, 1979). The concept of experience and authenticity are seen as intertwined. It could be stated that there is no other type of authenticity than perceived authenticity'. Authenticity is not a concept that describes inherent features of objects or relations, but is a value given by the person perceiving it, at the level of ontology (Olsen, 2002). As our world is becoming more connected and knowledge is becoming increasingly available, due to globalization, what was authentic some time ago, might not be perceived as authentic anymore today. Perceived authenticity is not something that is set, but something that changes over time and is contextual (Molleda, 2010). (Cohen, E. (1979). A Phenomenology of Tourist Experiences. // Kolar, T. & Zabkar, V. (2010). A Consumer-based Model of Authenticity: an Oxymoron or the Foundation of Cultural Heritage Marketing? Tourism Management, Vol. 31, p. 652-664. // Molleda, J.C. (2010). Authenticity and the Construct's Dimensions in Public Relations and Communication Research. Journal of Communication Management, Vol. 14:3, p. 223-236. // Olsen, K. (2002). Authenticity as a Concept in Tourism Research. Tourist Studies, Vol. 2:2, p. 159-182. // Pine, J.B. & Gilmore, J.H. (2008). The Eight Principles of Strategic Authenticity. Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 36:3, p. 35-40.
Authenticity by Neringa Kavaliauskaite
Authenticity is the perception of what is genuine, real, or true. This concept can be traditionally categorized as objective, constructive, postmodern, existential and also can be perceived as a social construct of people, which entails different meanings of what is exactly authentic. There can be two forms of describing this phenomenon - indexical (considers the kinds of authenticity that is believed to be the "original" or the "real thing") and iconic authenticity (reflects and resembles the original form). Concerning the authentic cultural production, it can be authentic in the sense that it is the result of an authentic craft process or a product, historical attraction can be authentic in relation to its authentic location. Globally speaking, the culturally authentic products can be found in order to feel connected to other cultural traditions as a part of the global community.
Authenticity in Lithuanian by Neringa Kavaliauskaite.
Autentiskumas yra tai, kas tikra, nesuklastota ar realu. Si savoka tradiciskai gali buti apibudinama kaip tikslinga, konstruktyvi, posmoderni, egzistencine ir taip pat gali buti suvokiama kaip socialinis konstruktas, kuris apima skirtingas zmoniu reiskmes apie tai, kas istikruju yra autentiska. Autentiskumas gali buti skirstomas i indeksini (apima ivairias autentiskumo formas, kas manoma kad yra "originalu" ar "tikra") arba ikoniska (kas atspindi ir primena originalia forma). Svarstant, kas apima autentiska kulturine produkcija, tai gali buti suvokiama kaip rezultatas autentisku amatu ar produktu, arba tai gali buti primtina kaip produktas ar istorine traukos vieta del jos autentiskos vietoves. Globaliai kalbant, kulturiskai autentiskus produktus galima rasti norint pajusti rysi su kitomis kulturomis, kaip pasaulines bendruomenes dalimi.
Authenticity Authenticity is often understood in terms of reliability and originality and it is based on personal perceptions which is in turn shaped by particular values and contexts. In fact, it can be argued that there is no other authenticity than perceived authenticity. From a tourism perspective, we might ask ourselves is mozzarella pizza authentic? Is the food authentic or do the surroundings play a role? Is pizza authentic at home, but cooked conform to a modern(ized) recipe, or is pizza authentic when cooked according to an old recipe and eaten in a traditional restaurant in a historical city? Where does authenticity end? Taking the Notre Dame in Paris, is the reconstruction in the 19th century according to ideas of the time authentic or may only the building in its original form be considered authentic? Why is it that something new and modernized cannot be considered authentic?
Belief is an acceptance that a statement is true or that something exists, or established as a personal opinion.
Belonging refers to the fact of being part of a whole. Also, the feeling that something belongs to us as individuals, or to our society.
Civic engagement and societal development. Civic commitment are both political and non-political processes that imply that all of the community members are able to participate in civic life. Social development refers to the development of both the human and the social capital of a society. The goal of civic engagement is to address public concerns and promote the quality of the whole community. The development of the society tries to explain the qualitative changes in the structure of the society, that help to achieve better its objectives. Development is a process of social change. During the last five centuries this process has increased in speed and intensity, with a marked increase in acceleration over the last five decades. These changes can be related to the active involvement of the citizens who in the contemporary world are free to express their opinion on the needs of society. The basic mechanism which leads to social change raises the awareness that results to better organization. When the society detects new and better opportunities for progress, it develops new forms of organization to successfully exploit these new openings.
Civic engagement Civic engagement is the process of active participation in the evolution of a community. It can take diverse forms such as top-down or bottom-up approaches, but in all cases it represents the will of people transformed in action and work towards an ideal outcome/society. Activism is one form of civic engagement that starts from the bottom, from local initiatives and propagate in time towards higher grounds. Activism might however be met with the stakeholders' and authorities' reluctance.
Classical Horsemanship by Maria Jose Sanchez
Conceptual definition given during the early modern period to the philosophy and method of training and handling horses traced back to the teachings of Xenophon (430 354 BC), a Greek philosopher, horsemen and military general whom spent great part of his life training horses for several Greek military cavalries. His central education revolved around the idea of partnership and cooperation between horse and rider, rather than the use of brute force and compulsion (Sargent, S. (2016). Classical Horsemanship and the Dangers of the Emergent Intangible Cultural Heritage Authorised Discourse. International Journal of Intangible Heritage, 11, 36-53). He applied such principle to develop ways of training and exercising the horse for specific cavalry movements useful in the battlefield. The term classical was accoined during the renaissance period, moment when there was a reawakened interest in ancient texts such as the theatres Xenophon had written, within them his most important work named On horsemanship. Furthermore the discipline of classical dressage evolved from cavalry horse training, developing into what is known as competitive dressage today. Several classical dressage schools based their teachings in Xenophons idea of riding in harmony with the horse instead of against him.
Classical horsemanship Classical horsemanship may be considered an art, a sport or a cultural material. In the earlier times, it used to be the main transportation mean for many peoples around the world and therefore horses were used as a utility, with no attempts to humanize or form any sort of psychological bonding on behalf of the horseman. Whether horsemanship becomes a distinctive cultural element depends on the way in which the human being reports to the animal. There are nowadays attempts to designate classical horsemanship as intangible heritage.
Communitas (Normative and spontaneous) by Gunnar Óli Dagmararson
Communitas is a state that can arise within groups, of two or more people, in a liminal period or liminal state. The state we consider to be the usual state of everyday life is abandoned and an alternative state of behavior -which we are not used to practising- is adopted. While in this liminal state, individuals are liberated from everyday demands and are at one with their companions. Communitas can furthermore be divided into two terms, normative communitas and spontaneous communitas. The normative is the state that prevails. For an example in churches when the congregation comes together to pray to Jesus Christ. Although everyone is in church for the purpose of praying to the "higher power", it is unlikely that everyone will find themselves "in Christ" in this circumstance. The spontaneous is contrary to the normative in the sense that it is not organized but rather it comes from the individual consciousness and therefore the congregation can find themselves overtaken by the Holy Ghost. People are therefore uplifted, swept away and taken over in the communitas.
Communitas Communitas is an anthropological term referring to collective action on behalf of a community. Taking the example of football, when supporters chant or react towards goals, it can be talked about spontaneous communitas. When everybody stands and sings along the anthem, it can be talked about normative communitas. The question is how can something transform from spontaneous to normative? Protests, for instance, in general seem organic and spontaneous. However, over time and with organization, they become normative.
Continuity refers to the consistent existence of something over a period of time.
Cultural diversity as a cultural heritage by Sæunn Ólafsdóttir
In the year 2001, UNESCO published a declaration on the importance of cultural diversity as a cultural heritage. It was an opportunity for the institiution to make clear its conviction that a dialogue between different cultures is the best way to keep peace in the world, and reject the idea that cultural clashes are inevitable when people of different cultural backgrounds come together. (Stenou, 2002). The declaration was groundbreaking since cultural diversity was discribed in the first article as common heritage of humanity and should be recognized and affirmed for the benefit of present and future generations. " The declaration also states that its aim is to promote the conservation of cultural diversity as a living and renewable treasure that should not be regarded as unchanging but as a dynamic process that guarantees the wellbeing of humankind.
Globalization and mobility of people between continents have changed western communites in the last decades. This has been known to create some tension and feelings of hostility towards new citizens and misunderstanding between cultural groups. It is important for all individuals to be respected and experience the feeling of belonging to society. For individuals who move to a different cultural environment, it can also be a challenge to adapt to new circumstances. The host culture will make demands about adaptation but the requirements for adaptation can be both vague and ill defined. The sense of belonging to the community is important for the individual for two reasons; in order to meet the societal and cultural aspirations of its society and to build a healthy identity (Ingvarsson 2016). Wellbeing is one of the fundamental aspects of human rights, which can be said to refer to how satisfied a person is with his or her mental and physical health, the sense of belonging to someone, financial security and the opportunity to work on something that matters.
Sandell (2007) points out that museums have the potential to work on these goals in a variety of ways. For the most part, museums have been considered to have a cultural role to play rather than social. But museums are in a unique position to promote equality since their voice is respected and recognized to be of high cultural importance. Thus, their power as an instrument towards social change has been underestimated.
Museums are an ideal venue for deliberating and celebrating cultural diversity, building bridges between groups, reinforcing a sense of community, belonging and inclusion. The purpose of museums has always been to protect and disseminate information about cultural heritage. Therefore we must be open to inventing new ways and ideas on how museums can perserve and manifest cultural diversity. In addition to sharing information and entertainment, museums also have the potential to be socially responsible organizations aimed at promoting the equality and well-being of all citizens. (Ingvarsson, L., Egilson, S. T., & Skaptadottir, U. D. (2016). "I want a normal life like everyone else": Daily life of asylum seekers in Iceland. Scandinavian journal of occupational therapy, 23(6), 416-424., DOI: 10.3109/11038128.2016.1144787. // Sandell, R. (2007). Museums and the Combating of Social Inequality: roles, responsibilities, resistance. Museums and their Communities, 95-113. // Stenou, K. (2002). UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity. Cultural Diversity Series, 1, 61.)
Cultural diversity by Sæunn Ólafsdóttir
Cultural diversity is the common heritage of humanity as stated in the Unesco Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity. In the declaration it is stated that culture takes diverse forms across time and space. This diversity is embodied in the uniqueness and plurality of the identities of the groups and societies making up humankind. As a source of exchange, innovation and creativity, cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature. In this sense, it is the common heritage of humanity and should be recognized and affirmed for the benefit of present and future generations." Our societies are getting increasingly diverse so it is important to encourage peaceful communication among groups of different background and identities. Enabling all citizens to participate and be included and respected in society, guarantees peace and flourishing public life.
Cultural diversity Cultural diversity is a social concept which refers to the diverse and to the peaceful communication and inclusion of all people of all ethnicities in the public life. It is about being able to accept people and enabling them to feel welcome. However, how can diversity be achieved, if we do not talk about ethnicity? Diversity is all out there. All the things Hutu and Tutsi were already diverse. It is the colonizers who used this diversity to divide.
Cultural sustainability refers to increase understanding and determine the role of culture in sustainable development.
Education and knowledge. Education is the process of helping the learning process. Knowledge can be facts or information acquired by a person through education. Knowledge has always been the goal of education. Anyway, we can observe that in recent years people do not pay attention in knowledge, but in passing exams and getting certificates. Thereby, the emphasis is focused on understanding the format of exams, so young people fail to have the basic knowledge of various subjects that helps them to create a complete personality.
Elite is a select minority with influence or authority over other people (a person or a group of people).
Emotion by Anna Solovyeva
Emoton is the reaction of an individual to his or her environment, to other individuals and to events. Emotions include both the inward state of the individual and the external signs by which ones emotions are made known to others. On the one hand, emotions, such as joy, sadness, fear, excitement or anxiety are connected to biological reactions and some of the emotional manifestations may be involuntary or unconcious: for instance, a person sweats or trembles. On the other hand, the manifestation of emotions or suppression of such manifestations is deeply imbedded in a culture to which an individual belongs. The ideas of proper or improper emotional behaviour in any given community are part of the communitys heritage and depend on its history, traditions, religion. The kinds of emotional responses expected in the community or denounced by it come to light in art and media: in the ways emotions are described in literature, shown in movies or even in the daily news. Such cultural evidence contributes to the communitys identity and to both outward and inward image of it. Emotional responses may be a language which helps the members of the community, as well as the outsiders, to understand what is going on but the same data, when insufficiently understood, may also give rise to numerous misunderstanding and prejudice, so that some communities are labelled as callous, unsympathetic, superficial, rude, or, contrarywise, refined and subtle.
Emotions are a way in which an individual participates in something that is happening in its environment. The combination of mental states, psychosomatic expressions and the states with biological reactions in the body. It is what a person "feels," not as a mere sensation, but as something deeper, having an impact on the body. The emotions differ from the feelings as they have more physical impact on our body (the emotions usually change our state of mind, behaviour, heart rate, etc). and the "soul" and is almost always expressed (face, voice, body posture) and it may be observable by others. It is very difficult to control the emotions by conscious effort. The emotions can be seen as our individual feelings. They usually bloom when one person feels empathy with someone or something. Also, the emotions could be seen as a part of our collective culture or heritage.
Emotions Taking the Museum of Breakups as an example which in itself may be very expressive, emotions refer to the way we calibrate and react, each in our own different way, to life experiences and heritage. While emotions may not be personal, they usually transcend the material part of heritage.
Ethnic group by José Carlos Rodeiro
Group of people of the same race or nation. They identify with each other on the basis of similarities such as ancestral, linguistic, social, cultural or national experiences. Unlike other social groups (defined by economic status, age or hobbies), the ethnic group is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases it may be adopted if a person moves to another society. Belonging to an ethnic group tends to be defined by shared cultural heritage, myths of origin, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cooking, dress style, art and the physical appearance. In many cases, the ethnic groups, historically derived from the same founding population, often continue to speak similar or related languages and share a similar genetic background. Through language change, acculturation, adoption, and religious conversion, it is sometimes possible for the individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups that emphasize in racial purity as a key-criterion of belonging). The ethnic group is often used as a synonym for ambiguous terms such as the nation or people. In English, it may also have the connotation of something exotic (see "ethnic restaurant", et c.), generally related to the cultures of the most recent immigrants, who arrived after the founding population of an established area.
Ethnic group by Roxana Mitroi
An ethnic group is frequently defined as a category of people sharing an ethnic identity and distinguishing themselves from other groups through particular similarities. These resemblances are established based on a joint cultural background which includes elements of heritage, ancestry, language, as well as of systems of symbols. It is important to note, however, that ethnic groups are not to be confused with racial groups, national groups or other alike terms, in that ethnic distinction is done on basis of a shared culture, rather than physical characteristics or membership to a nation-state. As such, within Europe, one can identify several indigenous and non-indigenous ethnic groups such as Dutch, Welsh and Romani amongst various, and equally important, others. Linking to the discourse of European heritage, ethnic groups play a significant role into the definition of a European identity, given the focus of the European institutions of culture and education on diversity and multiculturalism. Nonetheless, the integration of ethnic heritage into a broader European heritage might bring about challenges and must be treated carefully in order to foster solidarity, unity and understanding between and within ethnic groups, rather than to function as origin of inequality and discrimination. (Applebaum, R.P. & Chamblis, W.J. (1997). Sociology: a brief introduction. New York City, NY: Longman. // Caffyn, A. & Lutz, J. (1999). Developing the heritage tourism product in multi-ethnic cities. Tourism Management 20(2), pp. 213-221. // Peoples, J. & Bailey, G. (2010). Humanity: An Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.)
Ethnic group An ethnic group is a category of people sharing a particular identity, based on a joint cultural background which may include heritage, ancestry and language. Although sometimes used as interchangeably with racial or national groups, ethnic groups distinguish themselves through culture, rather than physical characteristics or nation-state membership. Since European institutions give a great deal of attention to cultural diversity, ethnic groups play an important role in the definition of a European identity.
Ethnic group An ethnic group is a group that has something in common. While ethnic group and nation are used in the same way, ethnic groups are, in fact, defined by culture. However, this separation might be counterproductive, as it is difficult to avoid the nation of ethnic groups. We need the notion of ethnic groups' in order to make sense of the world, but we need to be aware that it might serve for division.
European. To be European means sharing the same values. It is about us and the common feelings we have towards the world and towards each other. Migrants to European countries, whichever these countries are, are curious about our customs and traditions (and their diversity) and desire to feel integrated into our European culture.
Group identity by Intan Purwandani
Andalusian Identity: A coherent entity made from mixing up the group of people from migration patterns. Through assimilation and accommodation process, religion and geographical area slowly influence the making of the environment of Andalusia (Apaydin, 2014). Ibn Khaldun et al., (1967) in Apaydin (2014) had pinpointed that ethnic identification of Andalusian society is shaped by the feeling of belonging to a particular cultural group. This feeling is named as asabiyya or network affinity or group solidarity. The specific ethnic orientation he meant refers to Arab, Berber/Saqaliba, and Jews. Even though Benaboud (1980) in Apaydin (2014) argues that Andalusian society was ethnically heterogeneous and socially integrated; Apaydin (2014) firmly emphasizes that the main characteristics of Andalusian group identity are Muslim faith, Arabic language, and mixed character that at some points still has differences with Muslim Arabic speaking community elsewhere. Andalusian itself is perceived as everyone who has descended from Spanish Muslim who were first forced to convert to Christianity after 1492 and were expelled from the Iberian Peninsula. In Morocco, Andalusian ethnic and heritage have provided a dominant history in religion, language, and culture in Moroccan society. Andalusian identity from this perspective is defined as a single identity with a complex range of sociocultural context (Bahrami, 1995). (Apaydin, M. (2014). Development of the Andalusian Group Identity. Revista de Estudios Andaluces, 85-97. // Bahrami, B. (1995). The persistence of Andalusian identity in Rabat, Morocco. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.)
Andalusian identity The Andalusian ethnic identity remains interesting as it is not always considered European or purely European. The primary characteristics of the Andalusian identity as a group are Muslim faith, Arabic language and mixed North African and European culture. This is not to say that the Andalusian group is homogeneous, as within this group itself we can identify other various identities, for example also Andalusians who are Christian or Jewish. // Questions: Why are the Andalusian not considered part of Europe? While Andalusia does belong to Europe at least from a geographical point of view, due to their physical and intangible heritage and their mixed genetics between European and Moroccan ethnic identities, their belonging to Europe is contested.
Heritage by Despoina Palialexi
Features or circumstances that have some cultural, social or economic nature. Heritage is usually linked to some historical background. We can link this concept to either physical or intangible attributes inherited by one group of people, and which is supposed to be protected to be achieved for incoming generations. The deliberate act of maintaining the cultural heritage from the present to the future is known as Preservation of Nature. The cultural heritage is unique and irreplaceable, has an impact on the modern civilization and a responsibility to preserve it and safeguard it. The smaller objects such as works of art and other cultural works are collected in museums and galleries. The heritage can be linked to the tangible culture (buildings, monuments, books), intangible culture (music, languages, sayings), and "natural" heritage, which can be linked to landscapes or biodiversity. The modern society has understood that those limited values (either tangible, intangible or natural) need to be protected. Since the 20th century, entities like UNESCO or the figures of National/Natural Parks have raised to reach those protective objectives.
Image is a visual representation which represents the visual appearance of one or more objects or persons. It can be made in different media such as paper, camera or in the human brain. The image usually contains information of two or three dimensions. It is also used for any two-dimensional form, such as a map, a graphic or a painting. A fleeting image can be maintained during a brief period of time. Such can be our reflexion when we see ourselves in the mirror or a scene of a film. A fixed image, such as a paper of photo printing, is memorized for longer time.
Imagined communities by Sandra Björg Ernudóttir
The concept of imagined communities has for a long time been dominating while talking about nations and cultural heritage. Different nations have certain appearances, such as race, history and cultural heritage to name few things. In Europe in 19th century it was really clear, nations and ethnic groups were classified by the civilized" nations and they further away the other nation is, the hetero-image is even more exotic. The nations that are in the centre does allow what is agreeable to do and say, but in the periphery things start to get more exotic, it's a place where everything can happen. It's mostly gone today, but sometimes we can see trace of it, example with the movement in Europe those days, people come across culture that they arent familiar with.
The term imagined communities does also refer to that even the members of the smallest nations will never know each person who is a part of their nation or tribe. But they can always imagined their communications and because they have something together, like a national anthem or other form of cultural heritage, they do see themselves as a nation. With this cultural heritage, the nation determine their nationality and their uniqueness among other nations. It can also be looked at as imagined because the nation, together decides to forget something from the history. At the same time they find it important to remember something else, something they want to keep in their identity.
Imagined communities The term imagined communities' has been coined by Benedict Anderson to examine and analyse nationalism. Members of a community feel they know each other, even though in reality they do not, because they share certain (perceived) similarities.
Landscape by Laurine Vallon
In the first place, a landscape is an overview which offers the nature, of an area, of a country or a region of the earth. We can call it a panorama or a point of view. It's also considered as a social construction of a physical area with multifaced meanings, based on the interaction of anthropic and/or natural factors. Landscapes are big parts of our heritage, we need to preserve it as nature, architecture. It represents the world's diversity, natural beauty, and the coupling of human activities and natural life. A landscape represents too the aspect of the land characteristic of a particular region.
Landscape is a land extension. A landscape is a combination of forms, motives, colors, sounds which work as components that interact with the cognitive and emotional experiences of a person. It can be a visual, acoustic landscape and it can also be the political outlook, the cultural landscape In a more general view, each person can have a different opinion and comprehension about the landscape. That is to say, each person understands the different elements that compose it according to his or her personal experience, culture and aesthetic. All the visible features of an area of countryside or land, often considered in terms of their aesthetic appeal.
Materiality measures the presence or absence of an element or object that can be perceived by the senses. Materiality is judged according to its inherent nature, its impact value (influence), its use value and the circumstances (context) in which it occurs.
Memory (collective/social/cultural/communicative). The social memory contributes to the socialization process of the subjects. Transferred from one generation to another, something that rise the disturbing changes in the life of the individual and society. The content is not uniform and agreed by all individuals and social groups. Memory is a construction but not an unbiased construction. It's a construction made with feelings such as happiness or fear. Memory is important to understand how people lived an event, but it can't be used to know the truth. A cultural heritage can use memory to change the speech. Memory can forget some parts of an event or a period which can lead to conflict.
Memory by Mathilde Deavaud-Rainieri
Memory is information that is stored in a person's mind that connects to past history, places, and experiences. It can be both an individual and shared experience. Memory is often constructed socially by a family, a group of people, or a country. Memory creates a connexion to one's personal heritage and is often passed down through the generations. It can also be suppressed, and purposedly kept quiet. In the end memory is something that an individual choses to keep in his/her mind, or to let go whether it is something pleasant or something that would be rather forgotten. That's why today's societies are deeply influenced by their memory (good or bad), memory can shape an entire society's behaviour from the people to politics.
Memory is a type of intangible heritage. When memory is collected it should be interpreted with caution as it can be biased. Yet memory has an influence on tangible cultural heritage, such as how certain buildings and places are remembered and the events/history are associated with them.
Memory by Noelia Agulla
Connection of particular historical occurrences that illustrate the past of a region, individual and collective memorable occurrences. There is a connection with the past, it contributes to the process of socialization and the formation of ideology, so the memory helps the societies and individuals to develop themselves and set their ideology and lifestyle. It is inherited from generation to generation, which somehow always entails disturbances in everyone's life, in individual level and in the different social groups. We could say that it can be adapted to the socio-psychological identity of the subject. The societies tend to have a positive opinion on memory and a negative opinion on oblivion. The part of memory related to the definition of identity, puts us in touch with our roots and shows us our future. All in all, memory should always help us avoid to repeat past mistakes (e.g. wars, genocides, etc).
Message and media. Message is the object of communication. It is the information that the sender sends to the receiver through a communication channel. By media we understand the tool by which the process of communication is done.
Mobility is displacements that occur in a physical environment and they can be made by people and goods from a place to another, from a job to another, or from a social level to another.
Museum by Océane Vercasson
Le mot « musée » vient du terme grec museion, un bois sacré dans lequel vivent les muses, compagnes d'Apollon et gardiennes des arts. Il s'agit d'une institution au service de la société, ouverte au public, et par extension les bâtiments qu'elle occupe, bâtiment qui sont aujourd'hui de véritable chef-d'uvre d'architecture. Ses missions principales sont : acquérir, conserver, étudier, présenter, communiquer le patrimoine matériel et immatériel dans un but pédagogique, scientifique, social mais aussi d'agrément. Un premier musée est construit à Alexandrie. C'est un espace public consacré au savoir et à l'étude, ou est localisé la célèbre bibliothèque. Il faut attendre la Renaissance pour que le mot musée prenne le sens qu'on lui donne aujourd'hui. Vers 1520, à Florence une collection formée autour d'un prince est appelée « museum ». Ceci se transpose en France, dès 1560. Il s'agit de pièces où sont placées des collections variées et pas classées. Au XVIIIe siècle les cabinets de la Renaissance deviennent musées, sous la dynamique de deux phénomènes : le passage d'une structure privée à une structure publique et la montée en puissance de la classification et de l'organisation scientifique. Le Cabinet d'Amerbach à Bâle est le premier ouvert au public en 1671, suivi par l'Ashmolean museum d'Oxford en 1683. Si dans un premier temps les musées ont conservé tous ce qui leur semblait avoir de la valeur, une spécialisation est apparue. Aujourd'hui on peut les classer dans ces grandes catégories : musée d'art, musée d'archéologie, muséum d'histoire naturelle, musée de société, d'histoire et de technique et écomusée.
The word « museum » comes from the greek term museion, the godswood in which lived muses, Apollo's companions and guardians of arts. This is an institution at the service of the society, open to the public, and by extension, the building that embodied the Institution; a true architectural masterpiece. Its main tasks are to acquire, to preserve, to study, to exhibit and to communicate material and immaterial cultural heritage in educational, scientific, social and leisure goals. A museum is a link toward the knowledge. The first museum was built in Alexandria: it was a public space devoted to studies. It was during Renaissance that the word museum makes our actual meaning. Around 1520, in Florence, a prince gathered collections and called it "museum". This meaning change in France in 1560. It means a room where several unclassified collections are placed. In the 18th Century, these cabinets become museums, under the dynamic of two events: the transition from a private structure to a public structure and the rise of the classification and of the scientific organization. The Kunstmuseum Basel houses are the first museum opened to the public in 1671, followed by The Ashmolean Museum of Oxford, in 1683. Although in the first instance museum has preserved every valuable object, a specialization appeared. Today, there are broad categories: art museum, archeological museum, natural history museum, ecomuseum, society, history and technical museum.
Museum is a public institution, non-profit, at the service of society and its development. It is dedicated to acquiring, conserving, researching, communicating, exhibiting... for purposes of study and education and art collections. In a museum, people can explore their personal beliefs through universal truths. A museum is our link with beliefs and the way of living in past times.
C'est une institution publique, à but non lucratif, au service de la société et de son développement. Elle est dédiée à l'acquisition, la conservation, la recherche, la communication et l'exposition... à des fins d'études, d'éducation. Dans un musée, les personnes peuvent explorer leurs croyances personnelles à travers des vérités universelles. Un musée est notre lien avec les croyances et la façon de vivre du passé.
Museum The term museum' comes from the Ancient Greek word mouseion' which indicates a place/temple dedicated to the muses Apollo's guardians and sources of knowledge. The term has now evolved to denote true architectural masterpieces, in which artefacts and other objects of importance are exhibited in such way to communicate their role in society.
Museum A museum can be anything; it can be a whole city such as Paris, but it can also be a not very touristic rural village. People themselves and their homes may also be museums, as there is no limitation to a certain type of building, collections or other tangible assets. The debate remains around how museums treat culture and heritage.
Name. What is in a name? Names may be infused with power and may represent our cultural heritage. For example, the name Adolf will always be associated with Nazi Germany and with a need to take away or destroy (a part of) history. The name is then a part of culture, which may bring about divisions, but may also make people come together.
Narrative is a way of telling the actions carried out by some characters in a particular time and place. It is also a way of narrating true and false events and experiences. Moreover, It can also be the art, the technique or the process of narrating, or telling a story.
Nation by Mihaela Vidan
A nation is a large group of people united by common history, culture, or language, which live in a specified territory limited by borders, a country or a state. Beyond the strict and more surgical definition nation is an inclusive term, designed to address to individuals that share values, to those of us united by history, to those who have the same beliefs, or maybe on the contrary, they think exactly the opposite way, to those who have old family roots way back, and those who have just adhered to an identity. Nation is what people want to make of it. If we consider nation only by looking at it's heritage we can understand the word using another one: legacy. We can say that nation can be a social construction of all kind of common ideas, values, traditions and symbols passed from a generation to another. In the same time we cannot talk about nation without involving the feelings. As being an artificial social construct, built to serve a political purpose it is elementary to transform the cold idea or theory, containing various conceptual elements into a living part of society to whom people can relate and adhere.
Na?iune by Mihaela Vidan (in Romanian) Un grup de personae care împ?rt??esc o istorie, o cultur? sau o limb? comun?, care locuiesc pe un anumit teritoriu limitat de granite, o ?ar? sau un stat. Dincolo de defini?ia strict?, sau chiar chirurgical?, termenul de ne?iune este destul de incluziv, fiind construit s? defineasc? indivizi care împ?rt??esc valori, aceia dintre noi uni?i de istorie, aceia care avem acelea?i credin?e sau din potriv? gândim diferit, aceia care avem r?d?cini vechi de families au aceia care tocmai au aderat la o identitate. Na?iunea este cee ace oamenii fac din ea. Dac? ar fi s? consider?m na?iunea doar uitându-ne la patrimonial s?u putem în?elege termenul folosind un altul: mo?tenire. Putem spune c? na?iunea este o construc?ie social alc?tuit? din idei commune, valori, tradi?ii ?i simboluri transmise de la o genera?ie la alta. În acela?i timp nu putem vorbi despre na?iune f?r? s? vorbim despre sentimente. Fiind un construct social, artificial, construit pentru a servi unui scop politic, este elementar s? transform?m ideea rece sau teoria, con?inând elemente conceptuale variate într-o parte vie a societ??ii la care oamenii se pot raporta ?i la care pot adera.
National and/or group identity, (collective/social/cultural/communicative) refers to identifying with a group of people and being part of it, represented by distinctive traditions, culture, language and politics. National identity may refer to the subjective feeling that one shares with a group of people about a nation, regardless of its status. National identity is seen as "a kind of awareness of difference", a "feeling, recognition, and distinction" between the concepts of" we "and" them ". The extreme expression of national identity is chauvinism, which refers to the firm belief in the superiority of the country.
Nation Nation denotes a strong sense of identification and belonging to one state, that has no limits and never changes. It is however not static, as the potential limits change over history. It is about feeling that one is part of something bigger than oneself.
Nature as the qualities and characteristics of the human being. It is equivalent to the natural world, the physical universe or the material world. The traditional concept involves a separation between the natural and the artificial elements.
Nature by Mara Cristina
Nature is the equivalent of infinity. Nature can't be resumed to the present existence, but to everything the past, the present and the future bring together. Nature is the force which gathers a variety of galaxies, plants, animals, systems, landscapes and, of course, the humankind's origin. Nature is the material world that surrounds us, the flora and fauna we protect, the wild life we aim to know, the forests and oceans that are home of millions of organisms, the energy and climate-change we already feel. Nature is the construction of life. It's the universe with all its phenomena. Nature is the identity of existence independent of people, the resources without which people couldn't live, the essence of something that exists, the source of growth and change. Nature is also defined as the basic character of humanity, as an inborn character, as a behavior, the totality of time and space.
Nature Nothing would exist, if nature was not there. However much humans would go against and try to change it, the forces of nature are always stronger and may transform everything built or attempted by the human beings. Nature is the essence of life.
Objects are everything that can be perceived by a person. They exist independently of our will and our intellect.
Oral tradition and folklore refers to everything that is transmitted from generation to generation and spreads experiences and knowledge to the next generations. Folklore is the set of beliefs, practices and customs that are traditional from a group of people or culture. The stories in the oral tradition are those that a people build, collect and carry forward as part of their cultural world. Folklore appears mostly in the oral tradition, although oral transmission is not enough to distinguish folklore from non-folkloric. On the other hand, if a story is transmitted only "printed" and not in an oral way, it would be considered a "literary production based on a folk model, but this is not the same as the popular model". Folklore includes epics, myths, legends, fairy tales, fables, proverbs, songs, etc. Oral traditions are also a way to analyse how a society can define herself. An oral tradition can disappear if a society judges that it doesn't need it anymore.
Oral tradition Oral tradition is a method of communication meant to preserve and further transmit traditions and cultures. It may change over time, and each time a story is retold, new variances are created. Oral tradition is a huge domain of arts and culture.
Othering by Helena González Doval
As other' refers to anyone who is separated form one's self and implies ideas of identity and formation of subjectivity, othering would describe the process through which a difference is used and transformed the characteristics of the other (called otherness') so as to create an in-group and out-group. The out-group would be the dominated one, whose identity is considered lacking and who may be subject to discrimination by the in-group.
From a post-colonial point of view, and as coined by Gayatri Spiveak, othering refers to the process by which imperial discourse creates others' and describes the various ways in which colonial discourse produces its subjects. Whereas the Other', with capital O', corresponds to the focus of desire or power in relation to which subject is produced, the other' is the excluded or mastered' subject created by the discourse of power. However, it is a dialectal process because the colonizing other is established at the same time as its colonized others are produced as subjects.
Othering The other is produced by and through discourse. We can identity two types of othering: (1) the O'ther, which refers to the other possessing a higher status, for example the tourist; (2) the o'ther, which refers to the local inhabitants which transform themselves into others, creating thus in and out groups. Looking at Europe, we may ask ourselves who the others of Europe are. // Questions: How can the O'-o' in othering be otherwise seen/understood? It can be also seen as the division between dominator and dominated, in which the O'ther could be colonizer and the o'ther could be the colonized. These concepts are very relevant to Europe in the context of increased migration, where the migrant is generally seen as the o'ther. Looking at Africanism or Asianism, where African or Asian people are the colonized other', from a tourism perspective, there is a question of how an identity is created in respect to the actual (cultural) differences there are.
Past-ness is a status of being in the past. The subjective quality of something that is remembered instead of being experienced at the moment.
Performance is a particular way of acting or behaving.
Place-making is a multifaceted approach related to the planning, design and management of public spaces in connection with the communities that inhabit that space. It takes advantage of the assets, inspiration and potential of a local community, with the intention of creating public spaces that promote the health, happiness and well-being of people. It is both a process and a philosophy.
Power is the capacity that someone has to order. Also, influence or authority over other people (a person or a group of people).
Preservation is the action of preserving something. Make it last, in its previous state. Caring for a construction, natural setting ... of historical value. For instance, to take care of a natural environment.
Reconstruction is the action of reconstructing. To build something that existed in the past and has been destroyed.
Restoration is the action of returning something to a former owner, place, or condition. Returning to a previous position or condition. Also, the repair or conservation of works of art. For instance repair or maintenance of works of art, or restoration of the political regime that had been replaced by another.
Rethinking and re-contextualizing heritage by Neringa Kavaliauskaite
Tangible heritage at the one hand can be seen as grand, monumental, old' and aesthetic buildings, sites or artefacts that have a static' meaning. Through hegemonic discourse, a need to preserve, conserve and convey heritage to future generations is a main concern. Such discourse is based on the knowledge, scientific or aesthetic judgement of technical and aesthetic experts, whose most of the works and expertise are behold in monumentality and innate artefacts. However, it becomes more difficult to attach alternative interpretations of specific heritage sites, while heritage specialists sort of draw boundaries over alternative heritage values and meanings. Consequently, visitors are impelled to uncritically consume heritage' in a passive way, while they are accompanied by experts or representatives of heritage sites, who instruct audience how to perceive certain heritage sites and not necessarily how to be engaged with those sites more actively. In doing so, heritage could be seen as a cultural practice that is actively experienced, used and interpreted rather than seeing those sites from afar as never changing entities, whose meanings are static and not negotiated (Smith, 2006).
Rethinking and re-contextualizing heritage. The act of rethinking the term heritage. The attempt of adapting cultural heritage to contemporary needs. To make it, lots of changes need to be made because societies have radically changed in past decades.
Rethinking and reconstructing heritage Tangible heritage is often associated with aesthetic buildings or artefacts. Against expert knowledge, it is difficult to attach other meanings to these objects of tangible heritage, and visitors are used to consume heritage uncritically. Looking, for instance, at the Royal Palace in Amsterdam, regular tours only mention that it was previously the townhall, while specialized tours such as the Black Heritage Tours point to the fact that the building was the seat of the Society of Surinam (Surinam is one of the old Dutch colonies). The National Monument in the Dam Square contains 11 urns filled with soil from execution grounds from the Dutch provinces, however, recently there have been debates about the addition of a 12th urn with soil from Indonesia (former East Indies). Therefore, we cannot see monuments as static and we need to be active in giving different meanings. // Questions: Who has the right to recontextualize and give alternative interpretations to heritage and will these new meanings be accepted by the elites? - This is a common issue in the heritage business, which is commonly addressed in site management, but specific ethnicities that have a historical connection to the site should be involved as well. As another example, in Romania, the communist regime attempted to erase any trace of the former monarchy, by, for instance, making use of the royal palaces as administrative buildings. This is a case of top-to-bottom approach to building purpose changing. The same happened after the 1990s, when loads of other monuments where reinterpreted as a means to erase any trace of the former communist period.
Senses affect or express a feeling. They are physiological mechanisms produced through the organs of touch, taste, etc. which let you perceive either external or internal elements. They are also a function of our mind which is related to external perceptions. They are also a function of the mind which is linked with the sensation. Any special capacity of perception, estimation, appreciation, etc. Beyond its formal definition, senses usually are linked to the intangible side of concepts like history, culture or heritage.
Technology by Chance Matthew Williams
Technology is comprised of the tools, machines, and methods that can aid the preservation, restoration, reconstruction, or acquisition of both material and immaterial heritage. Increasingly the use of technology in the form of cameras, 3D imaging, videos, as well as the internet have allowed both the preservation and democratization of traditional material and immaterial cultural heritage in a digital form. The evolution of technology itself is a form of scientific and cultural heritage ranging from stone age tools to modern inventions such as the computer. Technology has played a central role in Europe, especially in it's industrial heritage where various advances such as the steam engine drove the industrial revolution that reshaped the continent, transforming the traditional folk cultures and laying the foundations for a modern Europe.
Value is the importance, worth, or usefulness of something, appreciated from an objective or an emotional/personal point of view.
Values Values are the fundamental beliefs that inform our attitude and guide our behaviour towards heritage and a variety of other aspects. They are associated with heritage as a tool to organize and actively construct society. Values may be divided into (1) individual and (2) collective values, however it is important to take into account that the individual values, while they may be personal, they are defined by the group one is part of. They are defined by the social, although not written in stone. Furthermore, especially in heritage, there is a pretence to make values more universal than they actually are.
Vernacular architecture is an architectural style that is designed based on the local needs, availability of building materials and reflecting the local traditions. Initially, the vernacular architecture did not use formally educated architects, but it was based on the design skills and the tradition of the local builders. However, since the late 19th century many professional architects have worked in this style, trying to maintain their tradition. It tends to evolve over time to reflect the environmental, cultural, technological, economic, and historical context in which it exists. To conclude, we can add that each region has different and particular needs. This is what automatically creates the originality of their own vernacular architecture.
Vernacular Vernacular means native to a particular place. In the discussion of heritage, vernacular refers to local characteristics and utility in the built environment. As such, vernacular can be about the context or about the topic./